Isaac Newton: The Weigher of the Universe, from the Motion of Objects to the Colors of the Rainbow

Warta Indonesia En. Ver  – Isaac Newton was an English physicist, mathematician, astronomer, natural philosopher, alchemist, theologian, and writer who lived in the 17th century. He is considered one of the most influential scientists in history.

Newton was born in Woolsthorpe, Lincolnshire, England, on December 25, 1642 (according to the Julian Calendar) or January 4, 1643 (according to the Gregorian Calendar). He was the son of Isaac Newton and Hannah Ayscough. Newton had an unhappy childhood; his father died when he was only three months old, and his mother remarried when he was three years old. Newton was then raised by his grandmother.

Isaac Newton displayed exceptional mathematical talent from an early age. In 1661, he was admitted to Trinity College, University of Cambridge. At Cambridge, Newton studied mathematics, physics, and natural philosophy. He also began to develop an interest in alchemy and theology.

In 1665, a cholera epidemic struck England, and Cambridge University closed. Newton returned to Woolsthorpe, where he conducted several important studies during this time, including the development of calculus, the laws of motion, and the law of gravitation.

After the university reopened in 1667, Newton returned to Cambridge and completed his studies. He later became a professor of mathematics at Cambridge. In 1687, Newton published his most famous book, “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” (Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy). This book contained Newton’s theory of universal gravitation, explaining how objects in the universe attract each other.

Newton’s theory of universal gravitation had a profound impact on the development of science. It explained the motion of celestial bodies, including planets, moons, and stars. The theory was also used to explain various other natural phenomena, such as tides and the movement of seawater.

Newton also conducted other important research, including the development of calculus, the theory of optics, and the theory of colors. He wrote various works on alchemy and theology as well.

Newton died in London on March 20, 1727, and was buried in Westminster Abbey, England.

Newton’s Contributions to Physics

Newton’s contributions to physics were immense. He is regarded as the father of classical physics, laying the foundation for the development of modern physics.

Here are some key contributions Newton made to the field of physics:

Isaac Newton’s Laws of Motion Newton’s Laws of Motion are three laws that explain how objects move. These laws are as follows:

  • Newton’s First Law: An object at rest will remain at rest, and an object in motion will continue to move at a constant velocity unless acted upon by a net external force.
  • Newton’s Second Law: The acceleration of an object is directly proportional to the net external force acting on it and inversely proportional to its mass.
  • Newton’s Third Law: For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Newton’s Laws of Motion form the basis for our understanding of the motion of objects in the universe.

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation explains how objects in the universe attract each other. This law states that every object in the universe attracts every other object with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.

Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation had a profound influence on the development of astronomy, explaining why planets orbit the sun, why the moon revolves around the Earth, and why there are tides in the oceans.

Calculus Newton, along with Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, is credited with the invention of calculus. Calculus is a branch of mathematics used to solve problems related to change. Calculus has broad applications in various scientific fields, including physics, chemistry, engineering, and economics.

Optics Theory Newton developed a theory of optics that explains how light propagates and how colors are formed. This theory explains why objects appear colored, how rainbows form, and how our eyes perceive light.

Theory of Colors Newton discovered that white light can be decomposed into the colors of the rainbow. He also found that these colors cannot be further broken down into simpler colors.

Newton’s contributions to physics were vast and influential. He remains one of the most influential scientists in history, and his works are still used today.